Title IX


Federal Legislation

State Legislation



Citing this page



High School

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution did an eight-part study of high school athletics in Georgia. Unfortunately, the text of the article is found in the Journal-Constitution's online archives, which cannot be viewed without a small payment
Day 1: More than 27 years after a federal law mandated that school athletic programs for boys and girls be given comparable support, gender equity is still not the standard in most high schools.
Day 2: First-class sports amenities are not new to boys sports, thanks to booster clubs that perpetuate inequities and leave girls with second-class facilities.
Day 3: From coaches’ compensation to sports budgets, football programs get the lion’s share of everything.
Day 4: Participation in Florida high school athletics has risen sharply since the state passed laws to ensure equality of sports opportunity.
Day 5: With college scholarships at stake, parents insist schools address disparities in opportunities for girls.
Day 6: Oconee County High School has made strides since becoming Georgia’s first high school with a Title IX complaint filed against it.
Day 7: Padding the participation numbers for girls, the Georgia High School Association classifies competitive cheerleading as a sport, over the objections of Title IX watchdogs.
Day 8: A bipartisan pair of legislators is preparing to introduce a bill that would give Georgia power to monitor and enforce Title IX compliance in the state’s high schools. Plus: Readers comment on the Gender Gap series and inequities in high school sports in Georgia.

Gender Equity

Search the Chronicle of Higher Education for participation numbers at colleges and search the website for the most recent articles about Title IX.

Download the 2004 Acosta and Carpenter update here.

Library sources

Acosta, R. Vivian & Linda Jean Carpenter. (1994) Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal Study 1977-1994. Acosta & Carpenter, Department of Physical Education, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, NY 11210.

Blum, Anne. (1995) Financial disparity as evidence of discrimination under Title IX. Villanova Sports & Entertainment Law Forum, Vol. 2:1, p. 5.

Creating gender neutral coaches' employment and compensation systems: A resource manual (September, 1995). Women's Sports Foundation, Eisenhower Park, East Meadow, NY 11554. (800) 227-3988

Davidson, George A. and Carla A. Kerr. (1995) Title IX: What is gender equity? Villanova Sports & Entertainment Law Forum, Vol. 2:1, p. 25.

Do the right thing: Understanding, addressing, and preventing sexual harassment in schools. Reviews the law, discusses prevention and intervention strategies, provides case studies, and includes lists of expert resources for the elementary and secondary school environments. Written in non-technical terms. $15 from the National Women's Law Center. (202) 328-5160.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (10/31/97) Enforcement Guidance on Sex Discrimination in the Compensation of Sports Coaches in Educational Institutions http://www.eeoc.gov/press/10-31-97.html

Forseth, Renee, Jennifer Daram, & Eric Sobocinski. (1995) Comment: Progress in gender equity?: An overview of the history and future of Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972. Villanova Sports & Entertainment Law Forum, Vol. 2:1, p. 51.

Fulks, Daniel L. (August 1994) Revenues and expenses of intercollegiate athletics programs: Financial trends and relationships - 1993. NCAA, 6201 College Boulevard, Overland Park, Kansas 66211-2422. (913) 339-1906.

George, B. Glenn. (1995) Who plays and who pays: Defining Equality in Intercollegiate athletics. Wisconsin Law Review, Vol. 3, p. 647.

Heckman, Diane. (Fall 1994) The explosion of Title IX legal activity in intercollegiate athletics during 1992-93: Defining the "equal opportunity" standard. Detroit College of Law Review, Issue 3.

Heckman, Diane. (1992) Women & athletics: A twenty year retrospective on Title IX. University of Miami Entertainment & Sports Law Review, Vol 9.

Images & words: Guidelines for female athletes, media, public relations, advertising, and marketing communities. Women's Sports Foundation, Eisenhower Park, East Meadow, NY 11554. (800) 227-3988.

Lenskyj, Dr. Helen J. (1994) Women, Sport and Physical Activity: Selected Research Themes. Sport Information Resource Centre, 1600 James Naismith Drive, Gloucester, Ontario K1B 5N4 Canada. 800/665-6413; e-mail: ref@sirc.ca

Lowrey v. Texas A&M University System: Title IX vis-a-vis Title VII Sex Discrimination and Retaliation in Educational Employment. Education Law Reporter, v. 124, pp. 753-770.

Mahoney, Donald C. (Spring 1995) Note and Comment: A critical review of judicial and administrative interpretations of Title IX as applied to intercollegiate athletic programs. Connecticut Law Review, Vol.27:3, p. 943.

NAGWS Title IX Toolbox. (1992) American Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, & Dance, 1900 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091-1599, Publications: (800) 321-0789.

Olson, Wendy. (Fall 1990) Beyond Title IX: Toward an agenda for women and sports in the 1990's. Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, Vol. 3(1).

Playing fair: A guide to Title IX in high school and college sports, 2nd Edition. Women's Sports Foundation, Eisenhower Park, East Meadow, NY 11554, (800) 227- 3988.

Righting the wrongs: A legal guide to understanding, addressing, and preventing sexual harassment in schools. Detailed discussion of legal principles and precedents governing sexual harassment in schools. Written for attorneys, advocates, educators, and school administrators charged with monitoring and enforcing policies. $30 from the National Women's Law Center. (202) 328-5160.

Sarver, Lisa A. Bireline. (1995) Coaching contracts take on the Equal Pay Act: Can (and should) female coaches tie the score? Creighton Law Review, Vol. 28:4, p. 885.

Stellmach, Denise K. (Fall 1994) Title IX: The mandate for equality in collegiate athletics. The Wayne Law Review, 41(1), p. 203.

Vargyas, Ellen J. Breaking down barriers: A legal guide to Title IX. National Women's Law Center, 1616 P Street, NW, Suite 100, Washington, DC 20036.

Williams, Joseph P. (Spring 1995) Lower pay for women's coaches: Refuting some common justifications. Journal of College and University Law, Vol. 21:4, p. 643.

Women’s Sports Foundation (October 22, 1997) Women’s Sports Foundation Report on Title IX, Athletics and Office for Civil Rights: An Examination of Letters of Findings Issued by the Office for Civil Rights in the Post-Civil Rights Restoration Act Era. Available through WSF’s Resource Center, $35 plus shipping and handling or Executive Summary for $3 plus shipping and handling. (800) 227-3988. 

Return to main page