The Atlanta Journal-Constitution did an eight-part study of high school athletics in Georgia. Unfortunately,
the text of the article is found in the Journal-Constitution's online archives,
which cannot be viewed without a small payment
Day 1: More than 27 years after a federal law mandated that school
athletic programs for boys and girls be given comparable support, gender
equity is still not the standard in most high schools.
Day 2: First-class sports amenities are not new to boys sports, thanks
to booster clubs that perpetuate inequities and leave girls
with second-class facilities.
Day 3: From coaches’ compensation to sports budgets, football
programs get the lion’s share of everything.
Day 4: Participation in Florida high school athletics has risen sharply
since the state passed laws to ensure equality of sports opportunity.
Day 5: With college scholarships at stake, parents insist
schools address disparities in opportunities for girls.
Day 6: Oconee County High School has made strides
since becoming Georgia’s
first high school with a Title IX complaint filed against it.
Day 7: Padding the participation numbers for girls, the Georgia High
School Association classifies competitive cheerleading as a sport,
over the objections of Title IX watchdogs.
Day 8: A bipartisan pair of legislators is preparing
to introduce a bill that would give Georgia power to monitor and
enforce Title IX
compliance in the state’s high schools. Plus: Readers comment
on the Gender Gap series and inequities in high school sports in
Search the Chronicle of Higher Education for participation numbers
at colleges and search the
website for the most recent articles about Title IX.
Download the 2004 Acosta and Carpenter update here.
Acosta, R. Vivian & Linda Jean Carpenter. (1994)
Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal Study 1977-1994.
Acosta & Carpenter, Department of Physical Education, Brooklyn
College, Brooklyn, NY 11210.
Blum, Anne. (1995) Financial disparity as evidence of discrimination
under Title IX. Villanova Sports & Entertainment Law Forum,
Vol. 2:1, p. 5.
Creating gender neutral coaches' employment and compensation
systems: A resource manual (September, 1995). Women's Sports
Foundation, Eisenhower Park, East Meadow, NY 11554. (800) 227-3988
Davidson, George A. and Carla A. Kerr. (1995) Title IX: What
is gender equity? Villanova Sports & Entertainment Law
Forum, Vol. 2:1, p. 25.
Do the right thing: Understanding, addressing,
and preventing sexual harassment in schools. Reviews the law,
discusses prevention and intervention strategies, provides case
studies, and includes lists of expert resources for the elementary
and secondary school environments. Written in non-technical terms.
$15 from the National Women's Law Center. (202) 328-5160.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (10/31/97) Enforcement Guidance
on Sex Discrimination in the Compensation of Sports Coaches in Educational
Forseth, Renee, Jennifer Daram, & Eric Sobocinski. (1995) Comment:
Progress in gender equity?: An overview of the history and future
of Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972. Villanova
Sports & Entertainment Law Forum, Vol. 2:1, p. 51.
Fulks, Daniel L. (August 1994) Revenues and expenses of intercollegiate
athletics programs: Financial trends and relationships - 1993.
NCAA, 6201 College Boulevard, Overland Park, Kansas 66211-2422.
George, B. Glenn. (1995) Who plays and who pays: Defining Equality
in Intercollegiate athletics. Wisconsin Law Review, Vol. 3,
Heckman, Diane. (Fall 1994) The explosion of Title IX legal activity
in intercollegiate athletics during 1992-93: Defining the "equal
opportunity" standard. Detroit College of Law Review, Issue
Heckman, Diane. (1992) Women & athletics: A twenty year retrospective
on Title IX. University of Miami Entertainment & Sports
Law Review, Vol 9.
Images & words: Guidelines for female athletes, media,
public relations, advertising, and marketing communities. Women's Sports
Foundation, Eisenhower Park, East Meadow, NY 11554. (800) 227-3988.
Lenskyj, Dr. Helen J. (1994) Women, Sport and Physical Activity:
Selected Research Themes. Sport Information Resource Centre,
1600 James Naismith Drive, Gloucester, Ontario K1B 5N4 Canada.
800/665-6413; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Lowrey v. Texas A&M University System: Title IX vis-a-vis
Title VII Sex Discrimination and Retaliation in Educational Employment. Education
Law Reporter, v. 124, pp. 753-770.
Mahoney, Donald C. (Spring 1995) Note and Comment: A critical
review of judicial and administrative interpretations of Title
IX as applied to intercollegiate athletic programs. Connecticut
Law Review, Vol.27:3, p. 943.
NAGWS Title IX Toolbox. (1992) American Association of Health,
Physical Education, Recreation, & Dance, 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 22091-1599, Publications: (800) 321-0789.
Olson, Wendy. (Fall 1990) Beyond Title IX: Toward an agenda for
women and sports in the 1990's. Yale Journal of Law and Feminism,
Playing fair: A guide to Title IX in high school and college
sports, 2nd Edition. Women's Sports Foundation, Eisenhower
Park, East Meadow, NY 11554, (800) 227- 3988.
Righting the wrongs: A legal guide to understanding,
addressing, and preventing sexual harassment in schools. Detailed
discussion of legal principles and precedents governing sexual
harassment in schools. Written for attorneys, advocates, educators,
and school administrators charged with monitoring and enforcing
policies. $30 from the National Women's Law Center. (202) 328-5160.
Sarver, Lisa A. Bireline. (1995) Coaching contracts take on the
Equal Pay Act: Can (and should) female coaches tie the score? Creighton
Law Review, Vol. 28:4, p. 885.
Stellmach, Denise K. (Fall 1994) Title IX: The mandate for equality
in collegiate athletics. The Wayne Law Review, 41(1), p. 203.
Vargyas, Ellen J. Breaking down barriers: A legal guide to Title
IX. National Women's Law Center, 1616 P Street, NW, Suite 100,
Washington, DC 20036.
Williams, Joseph P. (Spring 1995) Lower pay for women's coaches:
Refuting some common justifications. Journal of College and
University Law, Vol. 21:4, p. 643.
Women’s Sports Foundation (October 22, 1997) Women’s Sports Foundation
Report on Title IX, Athletics and Office for Civil Rights: An Examination
of Letters of Findings Issued by the Office for Civil Rights in the
Post-Civil Rights Restoration Act Era. Available through WSF’s Resource
Center, $35 plus shipping and handling or Executive Summary for $3
plus shipping and handling. (800) 227-3988.
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