Title IX


Federal Legislation

State Legislation



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State Legislation

1994 Legislation


Oct. 20, 1993: Withdrawn as a result of the consent decree agreed upon between California NOW and the California State University System. Originally, an amendment to the California Education Code (S. 262). Sponsored by Senator Gary Hart (D)

  1. Requires California State University institutions to achieve female/male intercollegiate athletics participation reflecting the ratio of female to male students on campus, beginning in the 1998-99 academic year.
  2. Establishes a Gender Equity Committee (to be 50% women, including at least 3 head coaches from both men's and women's sports) to report annually to the legislature on the progress being made toward providing comparable incentives and encouragement for female participation in athletics.
  3. Trustees must report a description of efforts being made and the extent to which compliance has been achieved. The first report is due Nov. 30, 1995 (pertaining to the 1994-95 academic year).


Signed into Law (May 1993) - Enforcement Language added to the Florida Education Equity Act (H. 899). Sponsored by Mary Ellen Hawkins (R)
  1. Florida's Office of Equal Educational Opportunity in the Department of Education will coordinate a newly formed task force on gender equity. The task force must: define gender equity in athletics at all levels of education and recommend to the Florida Commissioner of Education rules for enforcement.
  2. Each institution must develop its own gender equity plan and is then held accountable to that plan. The plan is to include sport offerings, participation, availability of facilities, scholarship offerings, funds allocated for administration, recruitment, comparable coaching, publication & promotion, & other support costs.
  3. State universities found not in compliance with Title IX and the Florida Education Equity Act are ineligible for competitive state grants and are subject to the withholding of state funds.


House Bill: KRS156.070(2)(a), passed July 15, 1994.
  • Mandates that the sports offered by schools must be in accordance with NCAA Rules.
  • (Note: response to lawsuit filed to change from slowpitch to fastpitch softball.)

    1995 Legislation Signed into Law


    S.269 Sports Equity in Intercollegiate Athletics Bill. Authored by Geo-Karis, Feb. 2, 1995. Signed by Governor: July 19, 1995.
    • Authorizes the issuance, at each public university, of undergraduate tuition waivers to female student-athletes, up to 1% of total tuition revenue
    • Estimated figures for fiscal 1996 (approximately $4.9 million):
    Illinois $1,574,000
    Illinois-Chicago 880,900
    Southern Illinois 508,400
    Northern Illinois 492,200
    Illinois State 456,300
    Western Illinois 230,600
    Eastern Illinois 221,600
    Southern-Edwardsville 200,600
    Northeastern Illinois 167,800
    Chicago State 142,000
    Sangamon State 61,400


    H.1943. Authored by Forster, March 27, 1995, signed by Governor on June 13, 1997. (Passed House 97-4 & Senate 33-0)
    • Provides up to 50 tuition waivers per year for female student-athletes at each state-supported college or university.
    • Intended to increase opportunities for women while aiding football-playing institutions in the move toward Title IX compliance.
    • Bill will release an estimated $1 million for use by athletic departments in other areas.

    1996 Legislation Signed into Law


    H.2042/S.2015, Authored by Kahn/Anderson, Jan. 5, 1996; Passed House Jan. 18, Senate Feb. 5.
    • Amend the Human Rights Act to permit the restriction of membership on an athletics team (program or event) to participate of one sex whose overall athletics opportunities have previously been limited.
    • If two teams (programs or events) are provided in the same sport, one may be restricted to members of the underrepresented sex.
    • Members of either sex shall be permitted to try out for the other team (program or event).

    1997 State Legislation Signed Into Law


    (H. 1683) Authored by Wagner, Feb. 13, 1997; Signed by Governor, March 31.
    • Allows for state-supported four-year institutions of higher education to use an additional $300,000 per fiscal year of unrestricted educational and general funds to provide gender equity in intercollegiate athletics programs.


    (H.1437/S.5464) Authored by Carlson & Kohl, Jan. 24, 1997. Signed by Governor, April 8.
    H.1437: Feb. 14, 1997 passed as amended by the House Committee on Higher Education. S.5464: Jan. 24, 1997 introduced. Passed as amended by the Senate Committee on Higher Education on Feb. 11.
    • Sets comprehensive goals/guidelines related to gender equity in athletics to be met by institutions of higher education by specified dates. Amends the responsibilities of the higher education coordinating board concerning its role in reporting on institutional efforts to comply with the gender equity provisions of the act.

    1998 State Legislation Signed Into Law


    S. 34 Authored by Hillyard: Jan. 19, 1998; Signed by Governor, March 21.
    Creates a sales tax exemption on amounts paid for admission to athletic events at colleges and universities subject to Title IX.

    Pending State Legislation

    In 1998:


    Pending HCR 169. Authored by Stegmaier: March 20, 1998; To House Committee on Education, March 27.
    Calls for the Hawaii High School Athletics Association to consider the impact of Title IX on high school athletic tournaments.


    Pending SJR 176. Authored by Ticer: Jan. 26, 1998; Passed Senate Feb. 13, 1998; To House, establishes a subcommittee to:

    • review Title IX requirements relating to female participation in intercollegiate sports.
    • determine extent of Title IX compliance in Virginia institutions of higher education.
    • make recommendations to ensure Virginia colleges and universities comply with federal laws and regulations prohibiting gender discrimination.

    In 1999:


    Pending HR 205. Authored by Powell:1/29/99Establishes February 4, 1999, as "Girls and Women in Sports Day." Provides for the recognition of outstanding high school and college female athletes before the Georgia House of Representatives.


    Pending S826. Authored by Buen: Jan. 22, 1999
    Provides for a gender equity law to ensure that no person, on the basis of sex, shall be discriminated against in any interscholastic, club, or intramural athletics offered by a public school. Establishes an advisory commission on gender equity in sports to define equity in athletics for all public schools and to recommend rules for appropriate enforcement. Imposes penalties on public schools in violation of the law that includes loss of general funds.


    Pending S 1055. Authored by Tisei: Jan. 6, 1999
    Establishes gender equity guidelines for the use of prime ice time at ice rinks. Applies to any organization that makes an ice rink available to the public, including a state higher education institution.  Provides that an arena may not deny the request for prime ice time from a group of an underrepresented gender, if the arena provides more prime time to groups of the other gender.  Increases ice time for underrepresented gender groups to 15 % in 1999-2000, 30 % in 2000-01, and 50% in 2001-02.

    New Mexico
    Pending S 31 Authored by Garcia: 1/19/99
    Appropriates $300,000 to the board of regents of New Mexico State University of the purpose of increasing women's sports activities to comply with Title IX.
    Pending S 331 Authored by Robinson: 2/1/99.
    Appropriates $820,000 for seven New Mexico institutions for the purpose of increasing women's sports activities in order to comply with the provisions of Title IX.


    Pending SCR 4. Authored by Blessing: Jan. 26, 1999
    Urges the Congress of the United States to amend Title IX to ensure that no federally funded educational institution is financially sanctioned if it retains men's athletic programs despite the conflict such retention creates with certain federal guidelines established pursuant to Title IX. Pending HCR 7. Authored by Jordan: Feb. 2, 1999
    Urges the US Congress to amend Title IX to ensure that no federally funded educational institution is financially sanctioned if it retains men's athletic programs despite the conflict such retention creates with certain federal guidelines established pursuant to Title IX.


    Pending H 1131. Authored by Hinojosa.
    Imposes a fee of $1 to be added to the admission charge for any intercollegiate athletics event held on the campus of an institution of higher education within the Texas system. Requires the funds collected be used to support women's athletics at institutions within the system. Provides for the funds to be distributed in proportion to the number of women competing in intercollegiate athletics at each of those institutions. Prohibits an institution from reducing the amount of other funds spent to support women's intercollegiate athletics as a result of the institution's receipt of money under this act.


    Pending SR 8616
    Establishes Feb. 4,1999, as "Girls and Women in Sports Day."

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