Title IX


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Federal Legislation

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103rd Congress
Improving America's Schools Act (H.R. 6)

Signed into Law by President Clinton, October 20, 1994 and became Public Law 103-382; Sponsored by Rep. Dale E. Kildee (D-Mich.): A bill to extend for 5 years the authorizations of appropriations for the programs under the Elementary & Secondary Education Act of 1965 and for certain other purposes.


  • Improving America's Schools Act of 1994;
  • Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act
    • Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act synopsis
    • Bill Text of Senate Version
    • Final published regulations from Federal Register Nov. 29, 1995
  • National Education Statistics Act of 1994;
  • Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellowship Act of 1994;
  • Community School Partnership Act;
  • Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994.
  • Authorizes the award of grants to conduct activities at all educational levels, including higher education, incident to achieving compliance with Title IX.
Counterpart Bill: S. 1513, Improving America's Schools Act of 1993, Sponsored by Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.)
Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act (S.1468)

Incorporated as an amendment to S. 1513; Public Law 103-382. Sponsored by Senator Carol Mosley-Braun (D-Ill.) (Sept. 1993). House version (HR 921) sponsored by Rep. Cardiss Collins (D-Ill.). The following is a synopsis of that amendment. Requires coeducational colleges & universities that participate in Federal student aid programs & sponsor intercollegiate athletics programs to prepare & make available an annual report, including:

  1. For each varsity team:
  2. Number of participants, as of the team's first scheduled contest.
  3. Total operating expenses (lodging, meals, transportation, officials, uniforms, & equipment) attributable to each team.
  4. Whether the head coach is male or female & is assigned to the team on a full-time or part-time basis.
  5. Number of assistant coaches who are male and female, and whether they are assigned on a full-time or part-time basis.
  6. On a team by team basis:
  7. Total amount of money spent on athletically related student aid and the ratio awarded male athletes to female athletes.
  8. Total recruiting expenditures.
  9. Total revenues generated by all men's teams and all women's teams.
  10. Average annual institutional salaries of head and assistant coaches of men's teams--across all sports--and the same for women's teams.
  11. Information is to be compiled on annual basis, to be disclosed to students, potential students, and the public on request.
  12. Regulations should be in place by April 18, 1995, and the first disclosure report is to be available no later than October 1, 1996.

104th Congress

Amendment to the 1996 Appropriations Bill for the Department of Education, Health and Human Services, and Labor

Sponsored by Rep. Ernest J. Istook, Jr (R-Okla.)
House Labor/Health & Human Services/Education Appropriations Subcommittee approved an amendment on July 24, 1995 (vote: 30-23) that would require the OCR to issue new "objective criteria" by December 31, 1995, telling institutions how to comply with Title IX, especially the 3-prong test. If the OCR fails to do so, it will be barred from spending any money on the enforcement of sports programs' compliance. Norma Cantu, Assistant Secretary of Education for Civil Rights had already committed to a policy clarification by September.

H.R. 2127: Education Appropriations Bill

Passed (219-208)
This legislation cuts more than $9 billion from health and education programs. Rep. Istook's amendment (see above) was modified slightly by Rep. J. Dennis Hastert, R-Illinois, and was accepted by voice vote. Hastert language calls for OCR to provide "specific" criteria in updating policy guidance as it pertains to prongs two and three. The Senate bill, as adopted by the Appropriations Committee, does not contain any of the title IX language.

Other 1995 Legislative Activity

Title IX Hearings

Department of Education: Disclosure Act

Department of Education: Title IX Enforcement

105th Congress

Higher Education Amendments of 1998 (H.R.6)

Sponsored by Representative McKean Jan. 7, 1997
H.R.6 was signed into law on Oct. 7, 1998, now known as Public Law 105-244, or the Higher Education Amendments of 1998. Incorporated into this law is the language of the original "Fair Play Act" of S.933 & S.1882. The law directs all postsecondary institutions with athletics programs to submit their Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act report to the Secretary within 15 days of the date the report is made available. The Secretary of Education is then required to compile a report on gender equity in athletics by April 1, 2000, to the respective Senate and House committees. The Department shall then make the data available to the public within a reasonable period of time. Within 180 days of the enactment of the Higher Education Amendments of 1998, the Secretary shall notify all secondary schools regarding the availability of information and how it can be accessed.

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