BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS REFERRED TO IN THE SITE AND OTHER WORKS DEALING WITH "THE SLEEPERS"
Parts of the analysis of "The Sleepers" in this site are reproduced from Ed Folsom's "Lucifer and Ethiopia: Whitman, Race, and Poetics before the Civil War and After," in David Reynolds, ed., A Historical Approach to Walt Whitman (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 45-95, and are used here with the permission of Oxford University Press. Other works referred to in the site follow.
Allen, Gay Wilson. The New Walt Whitman Handbook. New York: New York Univeristy Press, 1975.
Allen, Gay Wilson, and Charles T. Davis, eds. Walt Whitman's Poems. New York: Grove Press, 1955.
Aspiz, Harold. Walt Whitman and the Body Beautiful. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1980. [See pp. 175-179 for a reading of "The Sleepers" in relation to nineteenth-century notions of clairvoyance.]
Beach, Christopher. The Politics of Distinction: Whitman and the Discourses of Nineteenth-Century America. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996.
Black, Stephen A. Whitman's Journeys into Chaos. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975. [See pp. 125-137 for a psychological reading of "The Sleepers."]
Carlisle, E. Fred. The Uncertain Self: Whitman's Drama of Identity. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1973. [See pp. 165-170 for a reading of "The Sleepers."]
Cavitch, David. My Soul and I: The Inner Life of Walt Whitman. Boston: Beacon, 1985. [See pp. 74-81 for a psycho-biographical reading of "The Sleepers."]
Chase, Richard. Walt Whitman Reconsidered. London: Gollancz, 1955. [See pp. 54-57 for a reading of "The Sleepers."]
Erkkila, Betsy. Whitman the Political Poet. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. [See pp. 118-124 for a political-historical reading of "The Sleepers," emphasizing race.]
Fone, Byrne R. S. Masculine Landscapes: Walt Whitman and the Homoerotic Text. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992. [See pp. 117-129 for a gay reading of "The Sleepers."]
Hutchinson, George B. The Ecstatic Whitman. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1986. [See pp. 59-67 for a reading of "The Sleepers" in relation to theories of shamanism.]
Killingsworth, M. Jimmie. Whitman's Poetry of the Body. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989. [See pp. 15-27 for a reading of "The Sleepers" in relation to nineteenth-century attitudes about sexuality.]
Larson, Kerry C. Whitman's Drama of Consensus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. [See pp. 56-74 for a reading of 'The Sleepers' in relation to political theory.]
Loving, Jerome. "The One Book for Whitman Study." Études Anglaises 45 (July-September 1992), 333-339.
Marki, Ivan. The Trial of the Poet. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976. [See pp. 235-239 for a reading of "The Sleepers" in the context of the first edition of Leaves of Grass.]
Martin, Robert K. The Homosexual Tradition in American Poetry. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979.
Miller, Edwin Haviland. Walt Whitman's Poetry: A Psychological Journey. New York: New York University Press, 1968. [See pp. 66-84 for a psychological reading of "The Sleepers."]
Miller, Jr., James E. A Critical Guide to Leaves of Grass. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957. [See pp. 130-141 for a reading of "The Sleepers."]
Schyberg, Frederik. Walt Whitman. New York: Columbia University Press, 1951. [See pp. 124-126 for a reading of "The Sleepers."]
Warren, James Perrin. Walt Whitman's Language Experiment. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990. [See pp. 74-93 for a reading of "The Sleepers" in relation to Whitman's ideas of a "new grammar" and in relation to notebook drafts of parts of the poem.]
Whitman, Walt. Daybooks and Notebooks, ed. William White. 3 vols. New York: New York University Press, 1977. Abbreviated DBN.
Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass, Comprehensive Reader's Edition, ed. Sculley Bradley and Harold W. Blodgett. New York: New York University Press, 1965. Abbreviated LGC.
Whitman, Walt. Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts, ed. Edward F. Grier. 6 vols. New York: New York University Press, 1984. Abbreviated NUPM.
Whitman, Walt. The Uncollected Poetry and Prose of Walt Whitman, ed. Emory Holloway. 2 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1921.
Zweig, Paul. Walt Whitman: The Making of the Poet. New York: Basic Books, 1984. [See pp. 245-248 for a reading of "The Sleepers."]
OTHER RECOMMENDED RECENT ESSAYS DEALING WITH "THE SLEEPERS":
Gray, Eric R. "Sexual Anxiety and Whitman's 'O Hot-Cheeked and Blushing.'" ATQ 12 (March 1998), 5-26. [Offers a Freudian reading of the "hot-cheeked" dream of exposure and embarrassment in "The Sleepers" (a passage Whitman deleted in the 1881 version of the poem), viewing it as "about sexual anxiety" where "the speaker regresses; the speaker feels post-coital guilt after having sexual contact with a mother-figure, makes an unsuccessful attempt to identify with an imposing father-figure, and finally retreats in desperation to the mother's ambivalent breast and eventually in the following section to her death-like womb."]
Beach, Christopher. "'Now Lucifer was not dead': Slavery, Intertextuality, and Subjectivity in Leaves of Grass." Canadian Review of American Studies 25 (Spring 1995), 27-48. [Offers close readings of "I Sing the Body Electric" and Section 6 of "The Sleepers," emphasizing "their larger historical and political discursive contexts" (especially discourses of slavery and race) and demonstrating how these poems "engage in a dialogue with works by American writers such as Longfellow, Whittier, and Herman Melville." In different form, this essay can be found in Beach's The Politics of Distinction: Whitman and the Discourses of Nineteenth-Century America (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996).]
New, Elisa. The Regenerate Lyric: Theology and Innovation in American Poetry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. [Chapter 4, "Crossing Leviticus: Whitman," 95-150, focuses on "The Sleepers" and argues against the "mainstream consensus" of an "Emersonian Whitman": "If 'Song of Myself' is justly called Whitman's Genesis, Emersonian in its drive toward aboriginal beginnings, 'The Sleepers' is his Leviticus and Deuteronomy."]
Whelan, Carol Zapata. "'Do I Contradict Myself?': Progression through Contraries in Walt Whitman's 'The Sleepers.'" Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 10 (Summer 1992), 25-39. [Employs Julia Kristeva's theories to read Whitman's "The Sleepers" as a progression through dichotomies which justifies the "life affirming" final two sections that other critics have regarded as "contrived."]
French, R. W. "Whitman's Dream Vision: A Reading of 'The Sleepers.'" Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 8 (Summer 1990), 1-15. [Offers a coherent extended reading of the poem as a complex dream.]